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12

Paralyzed People Using Computers, Amputees Controlling Bionic Limbs, With Microelectrodes On (Not In) Brain

sea-maid submitted, created time 5 years 1 month (www.sciencedaily.com)

Experimental devices that read brain signals have helped paralyzed people use computers and may let amputees control bionic limbs. But existing devices use tiny electrodes that poke into the brain. Now, a University of Utah study shows that brain signals controlling arm movements can be detected accurately using new microelectrodes that sit on the brain but don't penetrate it.

10

Site For Alcohol's Action In The Brain Discovered

sea-maid submitted, created time 5 years 1 month (www.sciencedaily.com)

Alcohol's inebriating effects are familiar to everyone. But the molecular details of alcohol's impact on brain activity remain a mystery. A new study by researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies brings us closer to understanding how alcohol alters the way brain cells work.

6

How tools change the brain

sea-maid submitted, created time 5 years 2 months (www.nature.com)

Researchers have found convincing evidence that using a tool for just a few minutes can have a lasting effect on how someone perceives the size and position of their body.

10

Brain Detects Happiness More Quickly Than Sadness

sea-maid submitted, created time 5 years 2 months (www.sciencedaily.com)

Our brains get a first impression of people's overriding social signals after seeing their faces for only 100 milliseconds (0.1 seconds). Whether this impression is correct, however, is another question. Now an international group of experts has carried out an in-depth study into how we process emotional expressions, looking at the pattern of cerebral asymmetry in the perception of positive and negative facial signals.

9

Discoveries Shed New Light on How the Brain Processes What the Eye Sees

piggy submitted, created time 5 years 2 months (news.rutgers.edu)

Researchers at the Center for Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience (CMBN) at Rutgers University in Newark have identified the need to develop a new framework for understanding “perceptual stability” and how we see the world with their discovery that visual input obtained during eye movements is being processed by the brain but blocked from awareness.
The process of seeing requires the eyes to move so light can hit the photoreceptors at the center of each retina, which then pass that information to the brain

9

Nervous system may be culprit in deadly muscle disease

piggy submitted, created time 5 years 3 months (www.eurekalert.org)

Brain may win out over brawn as the primary cause of breathing problems in children with a severe form of muscular dystrophy known as Pompe disease.
Researchers at the Powell Gene Therapy Center at the University of Florida have discovered that signals from the brain to the diaphragm — the muscle that controls breathing — are too weak to initiate healthy respiration in mouse models of the disease

8

When Your Brain Doesn't Know What Your Body Is Doing

sea-maid submitted, created time 5 years 3 months (sciencenow.sciencemag.org)

As anyone with a busy schedule can attest, intending to do something and actually doing it are two different things. But your brain doesn't make such neat distinctions, according to a new study. Researchers have found that when you wave at someone, for example, the intention to move your hand creates the feeling of it having moved, not the physical motion itself. The discovery sheds new light on how the brain tracks what the body does.

12

How the brain translates memory into action

piggy submitted, created time 5 years 4 months (www.eurekalert.org)

When we emerge from a supermarket laden down with bags and faced with a sea of vehicles, how do we remember where we've parked our car and translate the memory into the correct sequence of footsteps and shifts of weight to get back to it? A paper in this week's PLoS Biology identifies the specific parts of the brain responsible for solving this everyday problem. These results could have implications for understanding the functional significance of a prominent brain abnormality observed in neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia

12

Closer Look at Einstein's Brain

piggy submitted, created time 5 years 4 months (sciencenow.sciencemag.org)

When a rare genius like Albert Einstein comes along, scientists naturally wonder if he had something special between his ears. The latest study of Einstein's brain concludes that certain parts of it were indeed very unusual and might explain how he was able to go where no physicist had gone before when he devised the theory of relativity and other groundbreaking insights. The findings also suggest that Einstein's famed love of music was reflected in the anatomy of his brain

12

Everything averages out, even relevant data. New imaging technique reveals secrets of brain tumor blood volume.

piggy submitted, created time 5 years 4 months (www.eurekalert.org)

Researchers from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have found a new way to examine brain tumor treatments. Their imaging system can predict probably patient longevity as early as one week after initial treatment.

Instead of creating a composite view of average change within the tumor, this method uses a standard magnetic resonance imaging protocols to monitor changes in tumor blood volume over time within the image's individual voxels

11

New findings resolve long dispute about how Alzheimer's disease might kill brain cells

piggy submitted, created time 5 years 4 months (www.eurekalert.org)

For a decade, Alzheimer's disease researchers have been entrenched in debate about one of the mechanisms believed to be responsible for brain cell death and memory loss.

Now researchers at the University of Michigan and the University of California, San Diego have settled the dispute. Resolving this controversy improves understanding of the disease and could one day lead to better treatments

11

Aspirin and Similar Drugs May Be Associated with Brain Microbleeds in Older Adults

sea-maid submitted, created time 5 years 4 months (www.eurekalert.org)

Individuals who take aspirin or other medications that prevent blood clotting by inhibiting the accumulation of platelets appear more likely to have tiny, asymptomatic areas of bleeding in the brain, according to a report posted online today that will appear in the June print issue of Archives of Neurology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.

12

Double Amputees Shed Light on Brain's Flexibility

piggy submitted, created time 5 years 4 months (sciencenow.sciencemag.org)

How does the brain cope when, several years after having both hands amputated, a person suddenly receives two new hands? Surprisingly well, it seems. In a study out today, researchers provide the most detailed picture yet of how the brain reorganizes itself to accommodate foreign appendages. And in a result that they are still trying to explain, the scientists found that in two such double-hand transplants, the left hand reconnected with the brain more quickly than did the right.

12

How do microglia examine damaged synapses?

piggy submitted, created time 5 years 4 months (www.eurekalert.org)

New research suggests that microglia, immune cells found in the brain, are involved in the repair of brain damage. However, it is completely unknown how microglia diagnose damaged circuits in living brains. A group of Japanese researchers led by Professor Junichi Nabekura and Dr Hiroaki Wake of the National Institute for Physiological Sciences in Japan, has successfully constructed a live image of how microglia survey the synapses in the intact and ischemic brains of mice. The team used two-photon microscopic technology. They report their findings in Journal of Neuroscience on April 1, 2009.

8

Early Brain Marker for Familial Form of Depression: Structural Changes in Brain's Cortex

sea-maid submitted, created time 5 years 5 months (www.sciencedaily.com)

Findings from one of the largest-ever imaging studies of depression indicate that a structural difference in the brain – a thinning of the right hemisphere – appears to be linked to a higher risk for depression, according to new research at Columbia University Medical Center and the New York State Psychiatric Institute.

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